Verse 13-17: Jesus so deeply offended, and moved to an extreme response?
It is likely that the place in the temple where the market had been set up was in the Court of the Gentiles. Thus, occupying that particular place was in essence excluding the nations from the worship of the one true God. The Temple was intended to be a place of prayer for all nations--not just the Jews.
Isaiah 56:7: These I will bring to my holy mountain and give them joy in my house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house will be called a house of prayer for all nations.”
It seems unlikely that the people would not have known this, as it was called the Court of the Gentiles. So, occupying that place was in direct violation to a command of God--not a misunderstanding. Thus, it was wholly appropriate for Jesus to bring judgment rather than reason.